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YieldYield refers to the earnings generated and realized on an investment over a particular period.Yield CurveA line that plots the interest rates, at a set point in time, of bonds having equal credit quality, but differing maturity dates. The most frequently reported yield curve compares the three-month, two-year, five-year and 30-year U.S. Treasury debt. This yield curve is used as a benchmark for other debt in the market, such as mortgage rates or bank lending rates. The curve is also used to predict changes in economic output and growth.Yield curve riskRisk of loss stemming from shifts in movements in the yield curve.Yield to maturity (YTM)The interest rate that makes the present value of a bond's cash flows equal to the bond's price or initial investment. The YTM on derivatives, Treasury futures, and interest rate swaps incorporate the impact of current funding rates (due to a change in data source, funding rates on Treasury futures were not incorporated on the YTM calculation from approximately early 2020 through 9-Nov-2022. Since November 9, 2022, funding rates on Treasury futures have been incorporated ). On a portfolio level, the YTM is a characteristic of the portfolio based on its holdings as of a particular date and is considered a long-term bond yield expressed as an annualized rate of return, assuming the portfolio holds the assets until maturity and interest rates remain constant. The YTM does not represent the performance yield for a portfolio and may increase or decrease depending on the present value of a bond’s market price as well as the number and size of payments remaining. As of April 14, 2023, the YTM has been capped at 15% in order to provide a more prudent and conservative representation.Yield to worst (YTW)The interest rate that makes the present value of a bond's cash flows equal to the bond's price or initial investment, calculated by making worst-case scenario assumptions (excluding issuer default) on the bond by calculating the returns that would be received if provisions, including prepayment, call, put, and sinking fund, are used by the issuer. The YTW on derivatives, Treasury futures, and interest rate swaps incorporate the impact of current funding rates (due to a change in data source, funding rates on Treasury futures were not incorporated on the YTW calculation from approximately early 2020 through 9-Nov-2022. Since November 9, 2022, funding rates on Treasury futures have been incorporated). On a portfolio level, the YTW is a characteristic of the portfolio based on its holdings as of a particular date and is considered a long-term bond yield expressed as an annualized rate of return, assuming the portfolio securities are called with the lowest yield after running to each potential call date. The YTW does not represent the performance yield for a portfolio and may increase or decrease depending on the present value of a bond’s market price as well as the number and size of payments remaining. As of April 14, 2023, the YTW has been capped at 15% in order to provide a more prudent and conservative representation.